The structure of the fuel and energy complex of the Krasnodar Region (hereinafter - FEC) is composed of the industries as follows:
- pipeline transport,
- oil-and-gas production,
- petroleum products.
The fuel and energy complex of the region includes over 300 enterprises of different ownership forms, which employ about 60 thousand people producing more than 25 percent of industrial output of Kuban and providing the budget of the Krasnodar Region with over 10% of all tax proceeds. The strategic directions of the long term energy policies of the region are the energy safety, energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental safety of the fuel and energy complex of the region. In view of the system of goals, objectives and targets of the Government of Russia, according to the Energy Strategy of Russia until 2020, the program of socio-economic development of the Krasnodar Region until 2020 the strategic objectives of the fuel and energy complex of the Krasnodar Region are as follows:
- reliable and balanced availability of fuel and energy resources (FER) for the sectors of economy and social sphere of the Krasnodar Region;
- ensuring a faster growth rate of capacities for electricity and gas supply, in order to implement the long-term and higher-priority investment projects in the region;
- advancing the energy efficiency of the regional economy, carrying out a stable energy efficiency policy;
The electricity industry is a highly automated set of power plants developing across the region, electrical networks and electric power grid facilities, united by a common technological cycle and a centralized operative dispatch control, with a total number of 12 thousand employees and more than one billion annual transfers of tax payments to the budget of the Krasnodar Region.
Heat and power complex
The systems of centralized heat supply for settlements of the region, in technological terms, are the closed, interconnected systems of production and distribution of thermal energy. The services of the centralized heating and hot water are used by 1/4 of the region’s population; consuming 71.5% of the total thermal energy sold in the region, 18% of thermal energy is used by institutions and organizations of the budget sphere, indicating a high social value of the industry. The centralized heat supply of the Krasnodar Region consumers is maintained by 51 heat supplying organizations, 25 of which are in the form of a municipal unitary enterprises,18 - in the form of OOO (LLC), OAO (Inc.) and ZAO (Close Corporation), 8 - diversified (integrated) municipal enterprises of housing and communal services.
The total number of employees in the industry is 11 thousand people. The annual tax proceeds in the consolidated budget of the region from the industry enterprises amount to 306 million rubles.
Specialized heat supply enterprises operate 1,350 boiler houses and 2,769 kilometers of heating mains, out of 2,540 boilers and 3,560 kilometers respectively. The average wear of boiler equipment, used directly in the production of steam and hot water is 65%. The average wear of heat networks in the region reaches 71%. The average actual losses during production and transportation of thermal energy in 2009 amounted to 17.1%, in accordance to standards – 14.8%.
Considering the state of the industry the strategic development objectives of the heat and power complex are as follows:
- achieving a high level of comfort in the residential, public and industrial premises, including quantitative and qualitative growth of the range of services for heat supply (heat and hot water supply), a high, meeting the European standards, level of providing the population and sectors of the regional economy with this range services at affordable costs;
- a dramatic increase of the technical level of systems based on the innovative, highly efficient technologies and equipment;
- reduction of wasteful heat losses and fuel consumption;
- providing manageability, reliability, safety and efficiency of heat supply;
- weakening of the negative impact on the environment.
The main objective of the Strategy is creating, on the basis of the existing potential and the development priorities of the industry, a reliable, cost-effective and optimal system utilizing the fuel resources of a rational system of heat supply in the municipalities of the Krasnodar Region.
An important aspect of improving the heat supply system will be reduction of the specific heat losses from 17.1% in 2009 to 10.7% in 2015, which will result in significant fuel savings. In order to ensure a common approach to the issues relating to heat supply in the Krasnodar Region, on the part of the public authorities, local governments, as well as the organizations providing heating supply in the region, the priority development trends of the industry are as follows:
- reconstruction and modernization of the heat supply systems those of municipalities of the Krasnodar Region;
- complete and reliable provision of the population and the regional economy with thermal energy at affordable rates and, at the same time, stimulating energy saving, risk reduction and prevention of crisis situations in the heat supply of the region;
- reduction of cost per unit cost for production of thermal energy and utilization of the fuel and energy resources by streamlining their consumption of energy-efficient technologies and equipment, reducing losses in production, transportation and sale;
- improving financial sustainability and efficiency of using the potential of the heat and power industry, productivity growth for ensuring the socio-economic development of the region;
- minimization of anthropogenic impact of heat and power engineering on the environment through the use of economic incentives, improving the structure of production, implementation of new technologies of production, transportation, sale and consumption of thermal energy;
- creating conditions to attract investment into the heat and power industry.
Gas industry is basic sector of economy of the Krasnodar Region, ensuring the needs of the economy and population in natural gas. The gas industry is represented as a single complex, which includes OAO Gazprom, OOO Krasnodarregiongaz, OAO Krasnodarkraigaz, OOO Gazprom Transgas-Kuban. The total number of specialists working in the gas sector is about 13 thousand people; the annual level of tax proceeds in the consolidated budget of the Krasnodar Region is 1.6 billion rubles.
Formation of the programs for development and modernization of the Unified gas supply system is approved by the Board of OAO Gazprom and adjusted annually by the Government of the Russian Federation taking into account the company's revenues. Moreover, the planning of deployment of the investment projects on the territory of the Krasnodar Region is supervised by the executive authorities of the Krasnodar Region and the Kuban municipalities without taking into account the capacity of the Unified Gas Supply System (GDS, gas pipelines - branches), which leads to the need for constant adjustments of plans for its modernization and development. The programs of OAO Gazprom are developed for five years and, in accordance with the concept of the joint-stock company regarding participation in supplying the Russian regions with gas, each adjustment to the program must be followed by a conclusion of examination of OAO Gazprom to do with a feasibility study of construction.
In the region 1.64 million apartments, 20.1 thousand industrial, agricultural and municipal enterprises, 2.1 thousand heating plants are supplied with gas.
Supplying the population with natural gas and LPG is 80.8%, including the natural gas – 71.4%. The transportation of gas via trunk gas pipelines of OAO Gazprom is carried out by the subdivisions of Gazprom Transgaz-Kuban. Transportation of gas via distribution networks is carried through 46 gas distribution companies, 35 of which are united by OAO Krasnodarkraigaz.
The volume of natural gas supply to the Krasnodar Region is - 8.0 billion cubic meters per year, including the population - 3.4 billion cubic meters per year. The volumes of annual gas consumption dynamics are described as stable. There is a small annual growth in natural gas consumers, associated with gas supply. The largest consumers of natural gas are Krasnodar TPP (1.8 billion cubic meters 3 per year) and OAO Novoroscement (500 million cubic meters per year).
Pipeline transportation of the Krasnodar Region is represented by the gas and oil main pipelines and oil product pipelines. The extent of the trunk oil product pipelines on the territory of the Krasnodar Region is 3.0 thousand kilometers, the tank farm is 1.77 million cubic meters, the volume of transportation and transshipment of crude oil is 93.0 million tons per year. Control of oil transportation through the trunk pipelines, preventive, diagnostic and emergency repair-rehabilitation works on pipelines are maintained by OAO Chernomortransneft, ZAO KTK-R, OAO Severo-Kavkazsy Transnefteproduct and ZAO Naftatrans.
In the Krasnodar Region they operate:
- 32 pump stations;
- 4 transshipment tank farms – “Sheskharis”, “Grushovaya”, “Zarechye” and “Tikhoretskaya”.
The total number of specialists working in the pipeline transport sector is about 7.8 thousand people. The overall level of tax deductions for the consolidated budget of the Krasnodar Region is 1.5 billion rubles. Decisions on specific areas for development of oil and petroleum products’ shipment are made by the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to the need for loading the existing transport infrastructure. Implementation of the projects of reconstruction and development of the pipeline systems for transporting oil and petroleum products causes substantial increases in investment, which sources will be the own funds of the open joint-stock companies AK Transneft and AK Transnefteproduct and the investors' funds, upon the assurance by establishing regulated prices (tariffs), of economically sound profitability of the capital invested capital.
Oil and gas complex
Component part of the fuel and energy complex of the Krasnodar Region is the oil and gas sector, which stable operation determines development and stable functioning of the economic complex and the social sphere of the region. In accordance with the Concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation until 2020 the high-priority areas for development of oil and gas industry of the Krasnodar Region are as follows:
- attracting investment in exploration and development of deposits of raw hydrocarbon;
- development of fields on the shelf of the Azov and Black Seas:
- introduction of new technologies for extraction and refining of oil and gas;
- increasing efficiency in using resources.
The oil and gas complex includes the companies of oil and gas production, oil refining and provision of petroleum products.
Oil-and-gas producing industry
The resource base of oil and gas in the Krasnodar Region was established mainly in the 50s – 60s of the past century. During the whole period of active operation of the fields in the Krasnodar Region they produced about 230 million tons of oil and 400 billion cubic meters of gas.
The oil-processing industry of the Krasnodar Region is represented by 5 companies, including the 3 major ones:
- ООО RN-Tuapsinsky NPZ;
- ООО Afipsky NPZ;
- ZAO Krasnodar Oil-Processing Factory - Krasnodarekoneft.
The number of employees is about 3 thousand people. The volume of primary oil refining in the region is about 11 million tons. The amount of tax proceeds made by the sector for the consolidated budget of the region is about 500 million rubles. The main problems of the oil refining industry are as follows:
- limitary transport capacities to supply the raw materials and to sell the finished products;
- limitary territorial opportunities to develop the refineries existing in the region;
- obsolete equipment in the oil refineries.
Strategic objective - increasing the volumes of oil refining in the Krasnodar Region, improving the product quality.
The main objective of the oil refining industry - implementation of the reconstruction of the oil refineries operating in the region in order to increase their capacities and completeness of processing of hydrocarbonic raw materials, thereby producing high-quality motor fuels and oils meeting the international standards. Thereupon, OAO NK Rosneft is implementing an investment project “Reconstruction of the Tuapse Oil Refinery, with making the processing volumes of oil from 5 to 12 million tons a year by 2012”.
Petroleum products availability
In the Krasnodar Region the wholesale and retail market of oil products is dominated by the large companies as follows: OAO NK LUKOIL, OAO NK Rosneft, OAO Gazprom, OAO TNK-BP. There are about 875 commercial gas stations; in addition, about 18 gas stations are operated by the enterprises of industry, agriculture, and transport for their own needs. The main concentration of the gas stations is in the major cities. Thus, in Krasnodar there operate 128 gas stations, in Armavir - 37, Novorossiysk - more than 40, in the city of Sochi - 67. In the most of the 33 districts there are about 10-12 stations on the average.
OAO NK Rosneft has in its structure 236 filling stations (OAO NK Rosneft-Kubannefteprodukt); OAO NK Lukoil has in its structure 75 filling stations (OOO Lukoil-Yugnefteprodukt); TNK-BP has in its structure more than 44 filling stations (ZAO TNK-YUG, on a franchising agreement); OAO Gazprom has in its structure more than 40 stations (OOO YNGK, on a franchising agreement). More than 70% of the gas stations are small and medium-sized businesses. The market capacity of oil products of the Krasnodar Region in 2009 amounted to some 3,500 thousand tons, which corresponds to the level of 2008. The bulk of oil products of the Krasnodar Region come by railroad. Market of Kuban petroleum products is more than 30% of consumption in the Southern Federal District. In general the oil product market of the Krasnodar Region is sufficient to meet the existing demand. In connection with this a strategic objective is to focus the future investment potential of the industry on improving the quality of care and services rendered. To this end, OAO NK Rosneft and OAO NK Lukoil implement in the region construction projects those of the Olympic format filling stations.
In order to implement the Federal Law as of 23.11.2009, № 261-FZ “On energy conservation and energy efficiency and on amendment of certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation” in the Krasnodar Region a special regional program on energy efficiency in the Krasnodar Region is being prepared. The program's goal is to increase energy security of the region due to the growth of energy efficiency, reduction of costs for budget organizations, paying for the fuel and energy resources consumed and ensuring a further shifting of the economy of the Krasnodar Region to the energy-efficient path of development, including:
- further implementation of the energy-saving policy in the territory of the Krasnodar Region, started in 2002;
- a more efficient use of thermal energy resources and creating the necessary conditions to complete the transition of the regional economy to the energy-efficient development path;
- sustainable provision of population and the regional economy with the energy resources;
- reduction of the negative impact of the power and energy complex on the environment;
- ensuring the energy security of the Krasnodar Region.
EXPECTED RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATING THE ENERGY STRATEGY OF THE FEC IN THE KRASNODAR REGION BY 2020
As a result of the implementation of measures in accordance with the Strategy, the following issues will be fixed in the region by 2020:
- stable and effective meeting of the needs of the growing economy and region’s population in the fuel and energy resources, namely:
- production of electricity in the region will grow from 40 to 60% that of the need;
- the level of supplying with natural and liquefied gas in the region will increase from 80 to 90%;
- the initial petroleum refining in the region will be increased from 11 to 20 million tons per year;
- the increase of gas transport (export operations) will grow from 50 to 94 billion cubic meters per year, crude oil and petroleum products from 100 to 160 million tons per year.